Which pension insurance contributions can be refunded?
Not all contributions that are saved in the insurance account can be refunded. It depends above all on when these contributions were paid and by whom.
In principle, only the contributions that you have paid yourself will be refunded. This means, for example, for mandatory contributions that were paid as a result of employment, only the employee's share is refundable. This also applies to contributions that the insured person and, for example, a social service provider paid together while receiving sickness benefit.
No refund: In addition to the employer's contribution, other contributions cannot be refunded. This includes contributions that were paid in full by a social service provider or by the federal government, for example while receiving unemployment benefits or during military/civilian service. The contributions for child-rearing periods cannot be refunded either, since they were not borne by the insured person. The same applies to post-insurance premiums.
Sources: 1) https://www.deutsche-rentenversicherung.de/DRV/LS/Beitrags-Erstattung/Beitrags-Erstattung_node.html
2) Broschüre. 406 17. Auflage (6/2022) - https://www.deutsche-rentenversicherung.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Broschueren/national/beitragserstattung.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3
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